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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 56-61

Association of caregiver distress with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia-A cross-sectional correlational study from South India

Department of Psychiatry, Indlas VIMHANS Hospital, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sripathi Santhosh Goud
Department of Psychiatry, Indlas VIMHANS Hospital, Vijayawada - 520 002, Andhra Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jiag.jiag_15_21

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Abstract Context: Non-cognitive symptoms of dementia, also known as behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are a less researched topic in developing countries like India. These symptoms not only affect the ability to sustain daily activities and reduce the quality of life but also increase morbidity and mortality in patients with dementia. Aims: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of BPSD and various correlates associated with the severity of BPSD and caregiver distress. Subjects and Methods: It was a cross-sectional, correlational study done on 80 consecutive patients and their caregivers attending the memory clinic of Indlas VIMHANS Hospital, Vijayawada. A semi-structured proforma to collect socio-demographic data, Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), The Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire (NPI-Q), and Everyday Abilities Scale for India (EASI) were used in the study. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were done to find the correlation between different study variables. Results: BPSD were reported in all the dementia patients. Night-time behaviour disturbances (100%), hallucinations (86.25%), irritability (76.25%), delusions (75%), and agitation (76.25%) were more commonly reported BPSD. There was a positive correlation between BPSD severity and caregiver distress on- hallucinations (r=0.661, P<0.001) delusions (r=0.840, P <0.001), agitation (r=0.823, P<0.001), depression (r=0.947, P<0.001), anxiety (r=0.971, P=0.038), disinhibition (r=0.917, P<0.001), irritability (r=0.875, P<0.001), night-time behaviour disturbances (r=0.451, P<0.001), and appetite abnormality (r=0.683, P<0.001) items. On Pearson correlation care giver distress was significantly associated with – age of the patient (r=0.325, P=0.003), MMSE score (r= -0.461, P<0.001), BPSD severity (r=0.780, P<0.001) and EASI score (r=0.475, P<0.001). Severity of BPSD showed significant correlation with- age of the patient (r=0.267, P=0.017), MMSE score (r= -0.269, P=0.016) and EASI score (r=0.356, P<0.001). Conclusion: BPSD are universal in dementia and they impact the quality of the life of the patients and the caregivers. Improvement in BPSD may reduce caregiver distress and improve the quality of care received by patients.

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