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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2022
Volume 18 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-40

Online since Thursday, April 21, 2022

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EDITORIAL  

Prevention of falls p. 1
S Deepa
DOI:10.4103/0974-3405.343686  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Study the co-relation between SpO2 and radiological and biochemical markers with the severity and outcome in geriatric Covid-19 patients p. 3
Selvanathan Sumathi, Shanthimalar Ramalingam, Jayalakshmi Ramasamy, Getrude Banumathy, Sony Solomon, Praveena Veer
DOI:10.4103/jiag.jiag_26_21  
Background: Pandemics are natural calamities, which humans have been encountering since time im-memorial. The world has witnessed and endured several pandemics like from Justinian Plague to Spanish Flu. The 21st century has already witnessed three major pandemics like Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2002, Middle East Respiratory syndrome in 2012 and at present COVID-19. The first case of COVID-19 was reported in Wuhan, Hubein Province in Dec 2019. The first case of COVID-19 was reported in Kerala on 30th January 2020. COVID-19 virus is a single stranded RNA Virus and resembles SARS -2 virus and hence the name SARS -COV 2. There has been a report of around 34 million cases with 1 million deaths. Majority of the deaths occur in the elderly population as they have immunosenescence and multiple comorbidities. Hence a study aiming at analysis of correlation between SpO2, radiological and biochemical markers is essential in management of COVID 19 in elderly. Aims & Objectives: To study the correlation between SpO2 and radiological features in X ray and CT Chest and biochemical markers with the severity and outcome in geriatric patients. Study Period: April 2020 to September 2020, Duration: 6 months. Study Centre: Chengalpattu Medical College, Tamilnadu. Inclusion Criteria: RT PCR positive Covid 19 patients more than 60 years of age. Exclusion Criteria: Covid 19 patients less than 60 years, RT PCR Negative patients. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of records of 300 Covid 19 patients, aged more than 60 years hospitalized in Chengalpattu Medical College during April to September 2020 was done and biochemical parameters mentioned below were corelated with features in CXR and CT Chest RTPCR positive spo2 and analysis with severity of disease and outcome was done. Results and Discussion: On retrospective analysis of records of elderly Covid 19 patients, it was observed that the elderly could be graded as mild, moderate and severe based on clinical criteria. Radiological parameters co-relating in the same group classified as mild, moderate and severe could be derived and could be used for assessment of patients. Similarly, it was observed that the biochemical parameters of D- Dimer, C reactive protein, Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio correlated most significantly in that order with the clinical severity of disease and hence could be used as useful tools for assessment of severity of patients and the ranges corelating with severity could be derived. Conclusion: Analyzing SpO2, radiological features, biochemical parameters individually and in combination with clinical severity and outcome in elderly patients helps in deriving biochemical and radiological parameters to predict severity which in turn helps in a holistic approach and right management at the right time preventing or reducing mortality due to Covid 19 in the elderly.
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Lethologica in aging: An analytical study p. 9
PC Girija, N P Fathima Shahal, Nayana Narayanan
DOI:10.4103/jiag.jiag_32_21  
Introduction: Lethologica is a phenomenon that is an early sign of aging. Lethologica refers to the inability to retrieve a specific word as a response to a visual, auditory, or tactile presentation. Need: Even though it is known that aging has a strong impact on cognitive language functions, it is not yet clear which aspect is most affected. Since naming is an important element of language functions, analysis of this aspect would aid in understanding the nature of deterioration of cognitive‒linguistic functions with age. Aim: The aim is to analyze the impact of aging on naming abilities in neurotypical individuals. Methods: One hundred and fifty neurotypical individuals of 30 individuals from each group between 30 and 80 years of age, i.e., 31–40 years, 41–50 years, 51–60 years, 61–70 years, and 71–80 years participated in the study. A tool was developed in Malayalam language to assess confrontation naming, responsive naming, generative naming, and contextual naming. A score of 1 was given for each correct response. Results: As age advances, all the naming abilities deteriorated. The effect was most prominent in the generative naming task as it demands the most cognitive involvement. The neuronal areas governing these cognitive aspects mainly include the prefrontal cortical regions which are highly susceptible to the aging process. Responsive naming and contextual naming were least affected as it gained the advantage of crystallized intelligence. The age-related decline is more prominent after the age of 60 years. Conclusion: Naming skills, even though being a language element also have strong foundations within the cognitive domain. Hence, any age-related neurobiological alterations can impact naming functions.
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Risk factors for falls in older adults with cognitive impairment p. 15
Mamta Saini, Manicka Saravanan Subramanian, Nidhi Soni, Vishwajeet Singh, Avinash Chakrawarty, Prasun Chatterjee, Aparajit Ballav Dey
DOI:10.4103/jiag.jiag_4_22  
Background: Falls are one of the leading causes of disability among older people. The risk factors of falls widely vary among the older populations, including the different stages of cognitive impairment. We aim to identify the risk factors for falls among cognitively impaired older adults. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, older adults attending the memory clinic were screened for falls and their risk factors. A total of 112 subjects who satisfied the inclusion criteria and provided informed consent were subjected to a semi-structured interview and comprehensive geriatric assessment. Cognitive impairment was graded by the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). Subjects were divided into fallers and nonfallers. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to identify the independent risk factors of falls. Results: The prevalence of falls was 39.28% in the study population. Gender (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 2.21 [0.690–7.117]), body mass index (aOR [95% CI]: 0.89 [0.773–1.028]), socioeconomic status (middle-class aOR [95% CI]: 0.34 [0.077–1.526], lower-class aOR [95% CI]: 2.44 [0.349–17.160]), multimorbidity (aOR [95% CI]: 19.39 [1.043–360.373]), depression (mild aOR [95% CI]: 2.90 [0.896–9.429] and moderate aOR [95% CI]: 4.77 [0.967–23.597]), and impairment in hobbies and home (aOR [95% CI]: 24.78 [6.251–98.294]) part of CDR were the independent predictors of falls. Conclusion: Older adults with cognitive impairment are at high risk of falling with definitive risk factors. Regular screening will help to identify older adults at risk of falls and enable fall prevention to reduce morbidity and dependency.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

A scoping review of community-based geriatric assessment and screening tools used in South Asia p. 20
Sucharita Panigraghi, Trilochan Bhoi, Sanghamitra Pati, Jaya Singh Kshatri
DOI:10.4103/jiag.jiag_1_22  
Background: Home-based comprehensive assessment and integrated care of the older people could be a key to relieve the pressure on the already overburdened health system. This review summarizes evidence on validated community-based geriatric assessment tools in South Asia. Methods: Guided by Arksey and O'Malley's five-stage scoping review framework, a total of 46 studies were included in the scoping review after searching from electronic databases and reference lists using the predefined eligibility criteria. Data were extracted on the main characteristics of included studies, identified instruments, and their psychometric properties of the tools. This review was reported in accordance with preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses-ScR guidelines. Results: Among the 46 included studies, 10 reported on instruments for medical assessment, 12 on tools for psychological conditions, 13 on tools for functional issues, 2 on social well-being, and 9 on tools with multiple domains of health. Most studies included participants from both gender and different social classes. Majority used measurements that were both self-reported or measured by the investigator, whereas only two instruments were designed to be used by clinicians. In the existing geriatric health assessment tools, environmental domain was neglected completely, and not a single tool considered in this review covered all 5 domains which influence regular life of the elderly. Conclusion: There are no validated tools available that can be used for comprehensive geriatric assessment in South Asia. There is a need to develop and validate culturally sensitive tools that can be used for assessing all the geriatric health domains.
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Isolated systolic hypertension in very elderly p. 32
Meenaxi Sharda
DOI:10.4103/jiag.jiag_8_22  
Globally, hypertension is a common problem in the elderly, and its prevalence increases with increasing age. Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) subset is more common in the very elderly population, and as the population ages, its prevalence will rise more and more. In the past, treatment of hypertension (HT) in the very elderly was controversial and either no treatment or complications of treatment risk overweigh the benefits observed. The inclusion of elders in various clinical trials has demonstrated a better understanding and rational approach toward optimal management of HT. Systolic blood pressure (BP) is more important in predicting adverse cerebrovascular outcomes and decline in renal function in elderly patients with ISH. Early detection, protection of target organs, correction of high BP will develop, promote, and corroborate healthy aging.
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CASE REPORT Top

Massive splenomegaly as the presenting feature of multiple myeloma in an elderly man p. 37
Vaibhav Mishra, Abhishek Pandey, Deeksha Goyal, Sankha Shubhra Chakrabarti
DOI:10.4103/jiag.jiag_15_22  
A 70-year-old man presented with generalized weakness, easy fatigability, and early satiety of 2-month duration. On examination, he had severe pallor and massive splenomegaly. Hematological investigations revealed bicytopenia with hypergammaglobulinemia and acute kidney injury. Bone marrow aspiration cytology was suggestive of plasma cell dyscrasia. Monoclonal protein peak (due to heavy chain of IgG type) was found on serum protein electrophoresis, and lambda light chains and IgG heavy chains were elevated on immunofixation. The patient was diagnosed as a case of multiple myeloma and was started on bortezomib–lenalidomide–dexamethasone regimen. After 7 months of chemotherapy, his spleen had regressed, and the patient had become asymptomatic. Presentation with massive splenomegaly is usually a feature of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. However, rarely multiple myeloma may have extramedullary manifestations such as splenomegaly as the primary presenting feature.
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ANNOUNCEMENT Top

Geriatric Seva Rathna Awards 2022 by Dr. V.S.Natarajan Geriatric Foundation p. 40

DOI:10.4103/0974-3405.343687  
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