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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-March 2023
Volume 19 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-83

Online since Friday, March 17, 2023

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Geriatric co-management p. 1
Arvind Mathur
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Frailty as a predictor of outcome in heart failure in the elderly: An observational study at a tertiary care center p. 3
Pratap Kumar, Minakshi Dhar, Barun Kumar, Vikram Jain
Introduction: Heart failure is the leading contributor to global morbidity and mortality. Frailty is an emerging prognostic factor in heart failure. There is little data on the prognostic role of frailty in patients admitted for acute heart failure as most studies have been done on stable heart failure patients. Methodology: The study included elderly (age ≥60 years) patients admitted with acute heart failure at a tertiary care center in India. Patients with dementia, cognitive impairment, and documented terminal illness were excluded. The sample size was 85 patients. Frailty assessment was done using short performance physical battery (SPPB) and Fried phenotype scales and follow-up data was collected at 3 months postdischarge telephonically. The primary objective of the study was to determine the proportion of frailty in elderly in-hospital heart failure patients. The secondary objectives were to see the agreement between the frailty assessment tools used (SPPB and Fried phenotype). Results: Eighty seven patients were included in the study. The majority were male (n = 45) and had heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (n = 56). Coronary artery disease (CAD) (n = 60) was the most common cause of heart failure. Eighty-two patients had at least one comorbidity. The proportion of frailty as per the SPPB was 43.67%, and as per the Fried phenotype was 68.9%. A total of 4 deaths and 15 re-admissions occurred during the follow-up period of 3 months. The majority belonged to the frail category as per both the frailty scales (P < 0.001 for SPPB, P = 0.087 for Fried phenotype). Fleiss's kappa coefficient for agreement between the scales was 0.373 (SE = 0.106, P < 0.001), which signifies that there was a fair agreement between the two scales. The Spearman Rank correlation coefficient was −0.691 (P < 0.01) between the two scales. Hence, the SPPB score inversely correlated with the Fried phenotype. Conclusion: Frailty is largely prevalent in elderly heart failure patients. It can be used to predict poor outcomes in these patients. Clinicians should identify these high-risk patients at the time of discharge from their facility and consider interventions (tailored rehabilitation programs) to minimize the adverse outcomes.
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Factors predicting mortality in elderly patients hospitalized for congestive heart failure p. 9
Meenaxi Sharda, Ankit Vijay, Nikhil Gandhi, Meghna Aggarwal
Background: Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome that results from any structural or functional impairment of ventricular filling or ejection of blood. There are range of factors that predict the mortality, morbidity, and outcome in congestive HF (CHF) patients. Objectives: The objective was to study the clinico-epidemiological characteristics and predictors of inhospital mortality of elderly patients ≥60 years hospitalized for HF. Subjects and Methods: A complete medical history of enrolled patients and physical examination inclusive of etiology, New York Heart Association (NYHA) grade, heart rate (HR), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were noted. Complete blood count, blood urea, serum creatinine, serum sodium, serum potassium, 12-lead electrocardiogram, X-ray of the chest, and echo were obtained in all patients. Outcomes were analyzed till the study endpoints. Results: Compared to normal comparators, a higher mortality was observed in patients with age >75 years (33.3%), HR >100 beats per min (27.14%), SBP <80 mmHg (60%), NYHA IV HF (37.1%), hemoglobin (Hb) <12 mg/dl (31.25%), blood urea ≥40 mg/dl (26.39%), serum creatinine >1.30 mg/dl (29.17%), serum sodium <135 meq/L (26.69%), and ejection fraction (EF) <50% (26.39%). Conclusion: Increasing age, prior history of CHF on admission, higher NYHA grade on admission, higher HR, lower SBP, lower EF, low Hb, higher blood urea, serum creatinine, and low serum sodium levels are statistically significant predictors of inhospital mortality of elderly CHF patients.
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Geriatric intertrochanteric fractures – A challenge to manage p. 14
P Madhuchandra, KM Pawankumar, K Manish, KP Raju
Background: Intertrochanteric fractures are among the frequently seen fractures in the elderly population. Treating these fractures is very challenging considering the fact that the quality of bone is poor and highly osteoporotic. The high failure rates with dynamic hip screw (DHS) especially in unstable fractures lead to the development of intramedullary devices such as proximal femoral nail (PFN) which has got multiple advantages over DHS. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 30 patients above the age group of 60 years with unstable intertrochanteric fractures conducted in a tertiary institute between February 2021 and June 2022. Results were analyzed clinically and radiologically using the Modified Harris hip score. Results: Patients' age group was 61–85 years with a mean age of 69 years, comprising 63% female and 37% male. The average Harris hip score was 83.76 at 24 weeks' follow-up with 33.33% excellent, 56.66% good, 3.33% fair, and 6.67% poor. Postoperative complications included revision surgery in two patients, superficial infection in one patient, Z effect in one patient, peri-implant fracture in one patient. Conclusion: Treatment with PFN for unstable intertrochanteric fracture has the advantages of closed reduction, less tissue damage, early rehabilitation, and return to work. Osteosynthesis with short PFN resulted in good-to-excellent functional and radiological outcomes.
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Anemia in elderly patients ≥65 years of age: a hospital-based cross-sectional study p. 19
E Kadhiravan, Agalya Devi, Reenaa Mohan, R Sindhuri, Shiek Abdula, D S. Karthika Devi
Introduction: Anemia in elderly patients of any degree contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality and has a significant effect on the quality of life. Despite of high prevalence, very few studies have examined the effect of anemia in elderly patients in India. Hence, this study is undertaken to know the prevalence and clinicopathological pattern of anemia in elderly patients. Objectives: 1. To estimate the prevalence of anemia in the elderly aged 65 years and above. 2. To determine the severity, clinicohematological patterns, and causes of anemia in the elderly aged 65 years and above. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study was done. The study was conducted for 1 year; during this period, elderly patients aged 65 years and above admitted for other medical conditions were recruited in the study using consecutive sampling technique until the desired sample size of 236 was achieved and they were evaluated for anemia. Among them with hemoglobin cutoff value <13 g% for men, <12 g% for women were further evaluated to known the cause of anemia and its clinicohematological pattern. Ethical committee approval was obtained. Data were analyzed using SPSS Software version 23.0. Results: The mean age of the participants was 73.9 ± 7.4 (standard deviation [SD]) years. Majority, 53.8%, of the participants were males. Among the 236 elderly patients, recruited in the study 65.3% were anemic and among them 44.2 had mild anemia and 37% had moderate anemia. Mean hemoglobin value of the participants was 10.7 ± 2.83 SD and it ranged from 3 to 16.3 g/dl. There was no significant difference in the hematological parameters between male and female elderly patients in the study. The main cause of anemia was found to be due to chronic diseases followed by iron-deficiency anemia. Conclusion: This study concludes that anemia was highly prevalent among elderly patients and most of them had identifiable and treatable etiology. Hence, all elderly patients with anemia should be evaluated properly for underlying etiology and treated accordingly to reduce the mortality and morbidity in elderly patients with multiple comorbidities.
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Prognostic value of serum albumin and C-reactive protein levels in the elderly for assessing morbidity and mortality in a tertiary care center p. 24
Sanjo K John, N Padmaja, I V. Ramachandra Rao, Subalin Priya, Centina Rose John, Tittu Thomas James
Introduction: There is an increased population of elderly globally due to advancement of technology in health care. Elderly individuals are susceptible to various diseases, owing to deficits in nutrition or healthy lifestyle. Serum albumin and C-reactive protein (CRP) are found to be sensitive to nutritional status as well as inflammation. This study is an attempt to analyze the prognostic value of CRP and serum albumin and analyze its usefulness as a prognostic marker in assessing morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. Methodology: One hundred patients above the age of 65 years and were admitted to the emergency care facilities of our tertiary care center were recruited for the study. Serum albumin and CRP estimation was done on the day of admission along with Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), and was follow-up till discharge. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate relationship between the serum values and CCI scores. Results: It was observed that 83.3% (10/12) of deaths occurred in those with low serum albumin levels, and 91.6% (11/12) with high CRP levels. The hazard ratio shows a 6% increased probability of death with one unit increase in CRP, whereas a one unit increase in serum albumin value decrease the probability of death. Conclusion: The present study concludes that low serum albumin and high CRP levels at the time of admission in the elderly population are associated with high CCI scores, longer hospital stay, and increased risk of mortality, demanding their estimation in the elderly in emergency and acute care facilities.
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Cognitive decline among older adults who developed acute coronary syndrome during hospitalization for non-cardiac illness p. 29
Priya Vijayakumar, Arun David, M Vijayakumar
Background: Atypical presentations of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) delay its recognition and treatment in the elderly patients. Functional decline and delirium which are common to the elderly during hospitalization, leads to cognitive impairment and poor health outcomes. Steps taken for its prevention is usually not considered the top priority by the cardiologist. The present study was conducted to identify cognitive decline among elderly patients who developed ACS during hospitalization for noncardiac illness and their outcome. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and ten elderly patients above 60 years of age with ACS were included from June 26, 2020 to October 13, 2020. Subjects were divided into those admitted primarily due to an ACS (Group I, n = 94) and those developing ACS following admission for noncardiac illness (Group II, n = 216). Co-morbidities, medications, investigations, management, clinical outcome, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale were compared between the two groups at the time of admission, after 30 days and after 6 months. Results: Majority of the subjects were admitted due to acute kidney injury (27.1%) in Group II and had a non-ST elevation ACS (90.2%). Optimum management was given to a lesser extent due to the clinical condition of these patients. Poor clinical outcome, cognitive impairment during hospitalization and cognitive decline during follow-up was more in Group II. Conclusion: Clinicians must be vigilant for the development of cognitive impairment and cognitive decline when an elderly patient is admitted to the hospital, as early detection and optimum management provides better clinical and cognitive outcome.
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Nutritional status and food environment of the elderly population residing in tea gardens of a block of Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India p. 36
Kunal Singh Sullar, Pallabi Dasgupta, Kaushik Ishore
Objectives: In India, poverty, illiteracy, and difficult terrains make the tea garden elderly population more vulnerable to malnutrition. The food environment shows the interface through which consumers interact with their food system. Hence, the present study was done to assess the nutrition status and identify the sociodemographic and food environmental factors affecting the nutritional status of the elderly population residing in tea gardens of Naxalbari block, Darjeeling district, West Bengal, India. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in all tea gardens of Naxalbari block, Darjeeling, from March 2022 to September 2022, among older people aged 60 years and above selected by simple random sampling. Using the predesigned, pretested questionnaire, the Mini Nutritional Assessment tool for nutritional assessment and the elderly population's perceived food environment was determined based on five points Likert's scale. Perceived food environment clusters were identified using a two-stage cluster analysis. Binary logistic regression was used to determine predictors of nutritional status. Results: Out of the 294 study participants, the majority of 190 (64.6%) of the older people were at the risk of malnutrition, 18 (6.1%) malnourished, and 86 (29.3%) had normal nutritional status. Binary logistics regression showed older people who were illiterate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 14.864; 95% confidence interval [CI]; 4.311–51.457) and not working (AOR 3.775; 95% CI; 1.753–8.128) had significantly higher odds of being undernourished. Older people who perceived a favorable food environment (AOR 0.408; 95% CI; 0.214–0.775) had significantly lesser odds of being undernourished. Conclusion: Tea garden older population is at higher risk of malnutrition. Illiteracy, working status, and perceived favorable food environment plays important role in altering the nutritional status of the elderly. Prior interventions such as awareness regarding food nutrition and developing elderly friendly food environment are needed.
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Functional limitation among older adults in a rural area in South Kerala and its associated factors p. 42
Rahul S Pillai, Sherin Susan Paul
Background: A person is said to have a functional limitation when he/she does not have the physical or cognitive ability to independently perform the routine activities of daily living. If recognized at an early stage, these can often be improved greatly, helping them regain their functional abilities and independence. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of functional limitations among older adults in a rural area in south Kerala. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted among older adults residing in the field practice area of a rural health training center of a medical college in south Kerala for 3 months from October 2019 to December 2019. Data were collected by interview of the participants by the investigator. The modified Barthel Index for activities of daily living was used to determine the prevalence of functional limitations. Results: The overall prevalence of functional limitations among older adults in a rural area in south Kerala was 35.9%. The most common functional limitation experienced by the participants was difficulty in climbing stairs. Functional limitation was found to be significantly associated with the age, socioeconomic status, and type of family of the participants. Conclusion: There is an urgent need to focus on the functional limitation among older adults, especially among the oldest old and those in lower socioeconomic status with emphasis on the need to strengthen the health-care facilities for them, with respect to early identification and management of their functional limitations.
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Psychiatric presentations and factors associated with suspected organicity in elderly attending a tertiary care facility in South India p. 47
B Srisudha, Munaf Babajan Nandyal, Naveen Kolloju, Rachna George Joseph, Reka Karuppusami, Suja Kurian
Objectives: The objectives were to determine the proportion of elderly among the new psychiatry outpatient attendees, identify their sociodemographic profile and clinical presentations, and determine risk factors associated with suspected organic conditions in patients presenting with acute onset and chronic presentations. Methodology: This retrospective cross-sectional study focused on the elderly presenting with psychiatric symptoms to a psychiatric setting. The onset of symptoms at presentation was divided into acute and chronic conditions. Clinical symptom clusters and the risk factors associated with organic conditions were identified. The Chi-square and Fisher's exact test were used to find an association between factors and outcome (organic/functional). Results: Elderly seeking consultation constituted < 10% of total new case registration. Acute onset was seen in one-third and chronic presentation constituted nearly two-thirds of the group. The common clinical presentations with acute onset were acute psychosis, altered sensorium, and psychosis due to an organic etiology. The most common clinical presentation with chronic course was chronic psychosis. Nearly 40% had suspected organicity. Increasing age, structural abnormality in brain imaging, and the presence of stressors were risk factors for the onset of psychiatric presentation in the elderly (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Early detection of the clinical syndrome, identification of organic conditions, and appropriate and prompt referral to the general physician should be the rule for the care of the elderly presenting to a psychiatric facility.
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Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis of the national program for health care of the elderly Highly accessed article p. 54
Nitin Kumar Joshi, Vibha Joshi, Komal Bajaj
Background: The National Program for the HealthCare of the Elderly (NPHCE) was adopted by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in 2010 to provide promotional, preventive, curative, and rehabilitative health-care services for the fast-growing older population in India. As literature about the assessment of NPHCE is lacking, the present study was conducted to perform a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of the program. Methods: The SWOT of the NPHCE program is analyzed using available literature and relevant documents. Results: Although this program embraces strategies to provide specialized training and services at primary health center, community health center, and district levels, including dedicated bedded wards, equipment, consumables, and pharmaceuticals but home-based care for the elderly, and the role of caregivers is overlooked in this program. NPHCE program can utilize the framework and take support of various ongoing healthy aging initiatives of international agencies to augment the health-care strategies for the elderly in India. Integrating schemes developed by the government for the upliftment of the elderly and the inclusion of traditional medicine systems in the program can serve as an opportunity for meeting unmet needs and improving the quality of life and well-being of the elderly. However, the growing elderly population, rise in nuclear families, and dual disease burden are significant threats to the program's implementation. Conclusion: This program can be more effective in providing comprehensive health care to the elderly if more emphasis is given to community participation, home-based care, and integrating digital health technologies and other existing welfare schemes.
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Characteristics of centenarian studies and variables related to longevity: A narrative review p. 61
Shyh Poh Teo
Studying centenarians requires a “positive biology” approach, where rather than focusing on disease, the research aims to understand the causes of positive phenotypes and explain biological mechanisms of health and longevity. This review outlines the characteristics of the key centenarian studies. Variables that may relate to the longevity of these oldest old are also described, including cardiovascular health, cognitive function, physical ability, mental and cognitive health, personality, and the social circumstances of the centenarian.
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Repigmentation of gray hair: A case report with a brief review of literature p. 67
Vinod Parkash Jerath, Richa Nischal, Aditya Jerath
A case of gray hair nearly 99% was seen to be converted to more than 99% of the pigmented hair, after using full sleeves shirts for 2 years, with 1-year follow-up, with the same results, and on screening the literature, we find it first such case in the world literature of almost complete repigmentation of both the forearms after using full sleeves shirts for 2 years and a follow-up of 1 year.
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Annular pigmented actinic keratosis mimicking lentigo maligna melanoma in a 75-year-old female: An unusual presentation p. 70
Hari Pathave
Pigmented actinic keratosis (PAK) is an uncommon variant of actinic keratosis that can mimic different pigmented lesions, which may be benign or malignant. The diagnosis of PAK is often challenging because of overlapping features with lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM). Clinically, lesions of both conditions almost look similar; the diagnoses must be established histologically and with the help of immunostaining whenever needed. The distinction between a large PAK and LMM is important because their prognosis and management differ. We present a 75-year-old female with annular brown-to-black-colored maculo-plaque on forehead having clinical suspicious of melanocytic malignancy; which was diagnosed with a PAK on biopsy with help of histopathology and confirmed with Melan A/MART-1 immunostaining.
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Thymoma: A rare presentation as recurrent pericardial effusion p. 73
Dipesh Jha, Prakash Tendulkar, Minakshi Dhar, Bishal Pratap Shah, Khusbhoo Bisht
Recurrent pericardial effusion is always complicated for the primary care physician to diagnose, and it often goes undiagnosed. Thymoma is rare cancer, but it is the most common tumor in the anterior mediastinum. It can present in a variety of ways; it can be asymptomatic for an extended period of time and only rarely as pericardial effusion. A 68-year-old male presented to us with two episodes of pericardial effusion in the previous 2 years and was later diagnosed with thymoma.
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Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia: A report of a rare entity in an elderly male p. 76
Anushruti Aggarwal, Sharang Gupta, Dimple Chopra, Raina Arora
Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is an uncommon benign proliferation of blood vessels of uncertain etiology. It primarily affects the head-and-neck region. Histologically, it is characterized by the prominent proliferation of plump endothelial cells, and accompanying eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration. Herein, we report the case of ALHE in a 65-year-old male.
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Approach to geriatric anemia p. 79
Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal, Riyas Basheer
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Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) – workshop by the IAG in APICON 2023 p. 81

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